In this project, we were asked to Traceroute at least three of the sites we regularly visit. Tracerouting is a tool used to track the packet path on IP network from source to destination, In my case a Domain.
When performing a traceroute on the command line, we can see visual how our request for a domain/IP Address is finding a path in our worldwide network. The request is hopping between routers and requesting access to better roads and pathways.
A step by step walk through the process
1. we send packets that use ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol). When a Packet has arrived in its destination, the computer receiving the data assembles the packets like a puzzle, recreating the message.
2. The packat has a TTL (Time to live). TTL is not about Time; it's about the number of hops the package can do. Usually, it is set between 30-64 hops so the packet won't try to travel forever.
3. The default of traceroute is to send 3 data packets to test each hop. We can see in our terminal that we 3 three RTT(Round-trip delay time) values.
4. The first Hop is enabling the traceroute to determine the Time required for the hop to the first router. Every time we receive the Time Exceeded message; the traceroute will increase the time limit value. Some hops might return asterisks which will follow a "Request timed out" message, This might be odd, but actually, it is because some devices weren't programmed to reply.
5. Finally, How traceroute knows when a packet has arrived at the destination? According to TechTarget: Traceroute determines when the packet has reached the destination by including a port number that is outside the normal range. When it's received, a Port Unreachable message is returned, enabling traceroute to measure the time length of the final hop.
What are the values that we see on the terminal line:
Each line is the traceroute live record of a hop: Each hop will give us information about:
1. Hop Number
2. IP Address - Internet Protocol address, numerical assigned to any device connected to a network and using the Internet protocol.
3. three RTT (Round-trip delay time) values. Usually between 20-25 ms.
I choose to follow three websites that I visit most frequently on my desktop computer:
haaretz.co.il - Israel left side Newspaper
Youtube.com - where I watch and search for the majority of tutorials
Leumi.co.il - My Bank
I wanted to able to see what is happening when I am tracing a social media platform, an online newspaper, and an institutional bank.I used three different Networks: NYU NET, iPhone hotspot (ISP - T-Mobile), and my House (ISP - Spectrum).
In this project, I was using: Traceroute in my command line, https://www.iplocation.net for IP location, P5, Map-box, and CSV's file to store all my data.
To save the Traceroute to TXT file:
traceroute haaretz.co.il > haaertz.txt
To save my TXT files as CSV files:
cat haaretz.txt | tr -s '[:blank:]' ',' > haaretz.csv
Finding information about the IP Addresses by using whois: who is 129.883.47.8 in the command line and searching online in services like www.iplocation.net. For each provider, I Added a Longitude and a Latitudes to my CVS files.
Mapping the information:
Haaretz.co.il > TMOBILE > 21 Hops
Haaretz.co.il > NYUNET > 23 HOPES
leumi.co.il > TOMBILE > 29 HOPES > 4 ISP
In this Project, I Learn that I about the five leading providers around my habits:
1. NYU-NET (48 hops) - is NYU's network (offices, labs, classrooms, and public spaces) for on-campus, local area networks (LANs), campus-wide networks, and access to the Internet and Research & Education Networks (RENs).
2. Bezeq int (18 Hops) - is an Israeli telecommunications company. Bezeq and its subsidiaries offer a range of telecom services. The company's fixed-line domestic communications segment offers domestic carrier services, including basic telephony, Internet infrastructure and access services, and transmission and data communications services.
3.Cellcom (16 Hops) is an Israeli telecommunications company, most of the company's business is centered on wireless service.
4. Tata Communication (26 Hops) - is an Indian telecommunications company. It's part of the Tata Group. Tata's communications network spans more than 500,000 km of subsea fiber and more than 210,000 km of terrestrial fiber. The company has invested $1.19 billion in its global subsea fiber network.Cognet Communication (12 Hops) - Cogent Communications is a multinational internet service provider based in the United States. Cogent's primary services consist of Internet access and data transport, offered on a fiber optic, IP data-only network, along with colocation in data centers.
Odd ISP's that got me curious:
1. Amsterdam Exchange Company (1 Hops) - The Amsterdam Internet Exchange is an Internet exchange point based in Amsterdam, in the Netherlands. Established in the early 1990s, AMS-IX is a non-profit, neutral and independent peering point.
2. PSINet - based in Northern Virginia, was one of the first commercial Internet service providers acquisition by Cogent Communications in 2002.
3. Level 3 Communications was an American multinational telecommunications and Internet service provider company headquartered in Broomfield, Colorado.
4. Elron Electronic Industries is an Israeli technology holding company based in Tel Aviv; since 1962 the company has been involved in setting up, funding and developing over 30 companies and is considered one of the foundation stones of the High-tech Industry in Israel.
I passed seven countries and crossed one ocean.
The majority of my hops (85%) were big companies; I didn't pass through any "shady" routers.
I am going throught NYU net on almost every request that i am doing.
There is a lot of movement in new york city and New Jersy.
Every time that I asked to move from the US to Israel, I had to cross at list two European countries.
Once in Israel, it seems like I am under the mercy of 2 companies.
In terms of Israel:
In 1991, The first fiber optics cable was creates in turkey: The Eastern Mediterranean Optical System (EMOS-1) linkin Greece, Turkey, Italy and Tel Aviv. According to wikipedia, Each pair of fibres are capable of transmitting 1920 telephone calls in each direction. Since then, other cables have been laid which have provided large capacity links between Israel and abroad.
In 2012, finally the law enforced 'Bezeq' and hot to be the sole monopoly as ISP and open the market for other new player, today there are twelve ISP in Israel. Since then prices have dropped considerably.
There are three companies in israel that installed optical systems:
I was amazed that haifa and tel aviv are the ports for these cables and now it make sense why i got so much of haifa as ISP. The major owner of these cables are actually Italy and not Israel which surprised me a lot.
Apparently the new cable will be connected to haifa and will pass the suez cannal which suffer from a lot of cable. The route will run parallel to the old route of the cable that now comes from Asia, enters the Mediterranean via the Suez Canal, and from there continues to Europe.
It will also serve as a back-up: Due to the strategic location of the Suez Canal, over the years it has created a load of underwater cables that are repeatedly damaged, both because of the large number of ships passing through the site, and because of hostile factors such as ISIS.
The cable will provide telecommunications operators and giant companies, such as Alibaba, Amazon, Verizon, AT&T and Facebook, continuous and high-quality Internet traffic from East Asia and beyond, and the shortest and fastest route east to west. Businesses and private users in Israel will also benefit from improved and direct Internet traffic.
The cable will come from Asia, to Africa and from Jordan and Egypt arrive to Eilat, then to haifa and connect israel to Europe straight. The intersting part of this new line is that this cable turns Israel into a strategic transit station for the global media.