Air raid shelters, also known as bomb shelters, are structures for the protection of non-combatants as well as combatants against enemy attacks from the air. They are some how similar to bunkers although they are not designed to defend against ground attack.
Underground stations (subway, tube), tunnels and cellars in houses or basements and even railway arches were suitable for safeguarding people.
On the left: a morison shelter made in 1941, A lot of models were made that time by people, from boxes like this that were meant to keep people safe from air-raids to Anderson shelters that were put in a garden outside the house. half a million Morrison shelters had been distributed by the end of 1941. It is interesting to see from the reading that the entire idea was shiflting from building really high forts, wall and barriers we went down, not to the surface of earth but underground, from showing everyone how strong we our we went hiding, beneath our common ground. were retreating from earth surface inside the ground.
in 1951, The state of israel required all buildings to have access to air-raid shelters, and all new flats possess access to "safe space". It started with public air-raid shelters in the middle of garden or streets which commonly employed as game rooms in peacetime so that the children will be comfortable to enter them at a time of need, and will not be frightened. And continue to be a requirement for every building, In 1992, technical specifications were drawn up for designated protected spaces in family homes. The "Merkhav Mugan" can withstand blast and shrapnel from conventional weapons, and offers protection against chemical/Biological weapons. It has reinforced concrete walls and ceilings, 20–30 cm thick floors, and airtight steel doors and windows.
There was a big effort creating "nice" aesthetics for them, most of them were painted from the outside with playful colour and illustrations, some of them became part of the communal center's for afternoon activities. this acts try to take the violence out of the public eyes, blur the idea about what these shelters are really are and reduce panic. for me they were always some kind of denial for what the situation is really about. defense, shielding or protection for most parts of israel is luxury/Extra. the fact is that the power for these structure were mostly in the hand of the Israeli security forces and the budget. so little decisions were made together with architects or phycologists that might shed more light on the effects of these structures/buildings/design.
One man Bunker
Monoblock: one unit of the material that is used to build the shelter
Concrete antitank obstacles such as these studded
the German West Wall, or Siegfried Line
Ouvrage Schoenenbourg, The Maginot Line, 1930:
This structures are build from concrete with a lot of thought about: rounded corners, thick walls, small crenel, steel doors, air filters and Exit ramps. its like a machine for surviving. its entire purpose is to survive forever, the width fo the wall tells us about what it is built for, the options of possible impact. the idea is that as many people as possible will be able to hide from the danger on the ground, this is the last resort for the human being in time of emergency.
in time of emergency, there is a change of habaitat - the home and also a change in the the habit - cloths. the new habitat is the shelter and the new habit is the shield, the helmet, the uniforms, the gas mask. this architecture is not existed just "to be" but "to do", she is waiting and then she will react. when you look at concrete and its structure there are no gaps, the are no joints - everything is linear, together, continued.
- I had an idea about the option to make a shelter for body parts, like concrete elements that once you lay under them you are protected from the possibility to die. but maybe you will be injured.
- The poses that people do in times of crisis, isolating these poses will be an interesting group of pictures.
- the sketched of the shelters, since it is underground and there is no actual structure, possibility to be in so many shapes and different looks as long as it stand in the standard.
- The sirens pole become colourful, maybe they're facing toward themself's
maybe they're on in the other. like a lot of chairs. maybe they're creating the feeling like it is coming to you. following an imaginary line.
Paul Virilio / The Monolith
Cyberwar, God And Television: Interview with Paul Virilio
Weird documentation bunkers in germany
PAUL VIRILIO'S EMPATHIC ARCHEOLOGY / Maurice Blanchot